(双语)抗炎饮食:您需要了解的有关食物、益处和膳食计划的所有信息

健康人生 双语 编辑精选 饮食

题图:Diet has a huge influence on our health. Here is how it can enhance your way of life. Photo / 123rf
饮食对我们的健康有巨大的影响。以下是它如何改善您的生活方式。照片 / 123rf

Chronic inflammation can lead to heart disease and cancer. We asked the experts which foods to eat — and avoid — to help tackle it.
慢性炎症可导致心脏病和癌症。我们询问了专家们应该吃哪些食物,避免哪些食物,以帮助解决这个问题。

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Ignore chronic inflammation at your peril. Recognised as a contributor to many deaths globally, half of these are partly attributable to inflammation-related diseases such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
忽视慢性炎症会带来危险。全球公认的许多死亡因素,其中一半部分归因于与炎症相关的疾病,如心脏病、中风、癌症和 2 型糖尿病。

“Whilst helpful in the short term as part of the body’s healing process in response to injury or an infection, inflammation becomes harmful if it becomes chronic,” says Dr Sammie Gill, a dietitian and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) specialist.
“虽然在短期内作为身体愈合过程的一部分,以应对损伤或感染,但如果炎症变成慢性炎症,它就会变得有害,”营养师和肠易激综合征(IBS)专家Sammie Gill博士说。

“And it can cause damage to tissue and cause disease.”
“它会对组织造成损害并导致疾病。

Diet is a huge influence. “Some foods such as the highly processed Western-style diet, with high levels of saturated fat, fuel inflammation. Others, such as a Mediterranean-style diet with its plant-based healthy fats and lean protein content, have an anti-inflammatory effect, which can be helpful in preventing and managing chronic diseases.”
饮食是一个巨大的影响。“一些食物,如高度加工的西式饮食,含有高水平的饱和脂肪,会助长炎症。其他的,如地中海式饮食,其植物性健康脂肪和瘦肉蛋白含量,具有抗炎作用,有助于预防和管理慢性疾病。

Inflammation can be harmful if it becomes chronic Photo / 123rf
Inflammation can be harmful if it becomes chronic Photo / 123rf
如果炎症变成慢性炎症,可能是有害的 Photo / 123rf

 

Understanding inflammation
了解炎症

Chronic inflammation is low grade (most people won’t know they have it), but persistent and can cause long-term collateral damage to tissue and organs, as well as affect immune function, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and tumours.
慢性炎症是低度的(大多数人不会知道他们患有慢性炎症),但会持续存在,并可能对组织和器官造成长期附带损害,并影响免疫功能,导致对感染和肿瘤的易感性增加。

“Chronic inflammation can be silently damaging your body and the effects will only become noticeable over time,” says Gill.
“慢性炎症会悄无声息地损害你的身体,随着时间的推移,这种影响只会变得明显,”吉尔说。

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Conditions associated with chronic inflammation include:
与慢性炎症相关的疾病包括:

  • Cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure and raised cholesterol.
    心血管疾病,包括高血压和胆固醇升高。
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
    非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)。
  • Chronic kidney disease. 慢性肾病。
  • Some types of cancer. 某些类型的癌症。
  • Neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson’s.
    神经退行性疾病,如帕金森氏症。
  • Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
    自身免疫性疾病,如类风湿性关节炎。
  • Osteoporosis. 骨质疏松。
  • Sarcoma. 肉瘤。
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis.
    炎症性肠病,如克罗恩病和溃疡性结肠炎。
  • Mental illnesses such as depression.
    精神疾病,如抑郁症。

What is the anti-inflammatory diet?
什么是抗炎饮食?

“An anti-inflammatory diet is not one diet per se, more of an umbrella term for an approach to eating a largely plant-based diet, with wholegrains, legumes and lean proteins such as fish, including oily fish such as salmon and mackerel, and poultry, and only a small amount of saturated fat,” says Gill.
“抗炎饮食本身不是一种饮食,更像是一种主要以植物为基础的饮食方法的总称,包括全谷物、豆类和瘦肉蛋白,如鱼,包括油性鱼类,如鲑鱼和鲭鱼,以及家禽,只有少量的饱和脂肪,”吉尔说。

“This approach is the foundation of the Mediterranean diet, the dietary approach to stopping hypertension (Dash) diet and the Nordic diet, which all focus on plant-based foods, healthy fats such as oily fish, nuts and avocados, rather than red or processed meat.”
“这种方法是地中海饮食、停止高血压的饮食方法(Dash)饮食和北欧饮食的基础,它们都侧重于植物性食物、健康脂肪,如油性鱼、坚果和鳄梨,而不是红肉或加工肉类。

Gill says diet has been shown to be a good predictor of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the blood. High levels are a marker for inflammation in the body. “Studies have consistently shown that higher intakes for fruit, vegetables and fish are linked with lower levels of CRP. Saturated fat, red and processed meats are linked with higher CRP levels.”
吉尔说,饮食已被证明是血液中C反应蛋白(CRP)水平的良好预测指标。高水平是体内炎症的标志。“研究一致表明,水果、蔬菜和鱼类的摄入量较高与较低的CRP水平有关。饱和脂肪、红肉和加工肉类与较高的CRP水平有关。

Inflammatory foods include those high in saturated fats such as meat, including processed meat, and butter, as well as processed foods such as cakes and biscuits, which contain palm oil.
炎症性食物包括饱和脂肪含量高的食物,如肉类,包括加工肉类和黄油,以及含有棕榈油的加工食品,如蛋糕和饼干。

Marcela Fiuza, a registered dietitian at Marcela Nutrition, says in her practice she uses a Med-style anti-inflammatory diet because it’s easy to follow and has the best evidence base.
Marcela Nutrition 的注册营养师 Marcela Fiuza 说,在她的实践中,她使用地中海式抗炎饮食,因为它易于遵循并且具有最佳的证据基础。

“As well as metabolic health it’s very beneficial for your joints, reducing your risk of certain types of cancer, and it’s important for brain health and cognitive function. There are also benefits for your emotional health including reducing the risk of depression and improving mood.”
“除了代谢健康外,它还对你的关节非常有益,降低了你患某些类型癌症的风险,它对大脑健康和认知功能也很重要。对你的情绪健康也有好处,包括降低患抑郁症的风险和改善情绪。

A Mediterranean diet benefits your emotional health by reducing the risk of depression and improving mood. Photo / 123rf
A Mediterranean diet benefits your emotional health by reducing the risk of depression and improving mood. Photo / 123rf
地中海饮食通过降低患抑郁症的风险和改善情绪来有益于您的情绪健康。照片 / 123rf

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Foods to include 应包含的食物

Anti-inflammatory foods include:
抗炎食物包括:

  • Green leafy vegetables: “Broccoli, kale and spinach are all anti-inflammatory,” says Ursula Arens, a nutrition writer and former registered dietitian. “Try to eat them regularly (it doesn’t have to be every day) as they contain plant chemicals including polyphenols which reduce inflammation.”
    绿叶蔬菜:“西兰花、羽衣甘蓝和菠菜都具有抗炎作用,”营养作家、前注册营养师乌尔苏拉·阿伦斯(Ursula Arens)说。试着定期吃它们(不一定每天都吃),因为它们含有植物化学物质,包括减少炎症的多酚。
  • Pulses and legumes such as chickpeas, beans and lentils.
    豆类和豆类,如鹰嘴豆、豆类和扁豆。
  • Unsalted nuts and seeds. 无盐坚果和种子。
  • Fruits, including blueberries, cherries, strawberries, apples, bananas, oranges and grapes are all rich sources of antioxidants that have anti-inflammatory effects. “Don’t get fixated on eating particular ones, eat the ones you enjoy and aim for a variety,” Arens advises. “The recommended intake is five a day in the UK, but seven in Australia (five vegetables and two fruits). Most people in the UK are only averaging 3.5 a day. All types of fruit count, including fresh, frozen and tinned.”
    水果,包括蓝莓、樱桃、草莓、苹果、香蕉、橙子和葡萄,都是具有抗炎作用的抗氧化剂的丰富来源。“不要执着于吃特定的,吃你喜欢的,并以多样化为目标,”阿伦斯建议道。“在英国,建议摄入量是每天五种,但在澳大利亚是七种(五种蔬菜和两种水果)。在英国,大多数人平均每天只有 3.5 次。所有类型的水果都算数,包括新鲜的、冷冻的和罐装的。
  • Oily fish: “These include salmon, sardines, mackerel, herring and fresh tuna (but not tinned),” says Arens. “They are rich sources of long-chain omega fatty acids, which have a strong evidence base for reducing inflammation, particularly in arthritis. The UK government recommends eating two portions a week of fish, one of which would be oily. This probably wouldn’t be enough on its own to help with something like arthritis, though, you would need to take fish oil supplements as well and medication. Large amounts of omega-3s will help, but won’t cure the condition.”
    油性鱼类:“这些包括鲑鱼、沙丁鱼、鲭鱼、鲱鱼和新鲜金枪鱼(但不是罐装的),”阿伦斯说。“它们是长链欧米茄脂肪酸的丰富来源,具有减少炎症的强大证据基础,特别是在关节炎中。英国政府建议每周吃两份鱼,其中一份是多油的。这本身可能不足以帮助治疗关节炎等疾病,但是,您还需要服用鱼油补充剂和药物。大量的omega-3会有所帮助,但不能治愈这种疾病。
  • Olive oil and rapeseed oil.
    橄榄油和菜籽油。
  • Wholegrains including wholemeal bread, pasta and rice.
    全谷物,包括全麦面包、意大利面和米饭。
  • Tea, including black tea and green tea. “Tea has a high anti-inflammatory index score, it doesn’t matter whether it’s black or green, although there’s some evidence adding milk might reduce the effects,” says Arens.
    茶,包括红茶和绿茶。“茶的抗炎指数得分很高,不管是黑色还是绿色,尽管有一些证据表明添加牛奶可能会降低效果,”阿伦斯说。
  • Coffee is also anti-inflammatory because it contains polyphenols (but doesn’t score as highly as tea).
    咖啡也具有抗炎作用,因为它含有多酚(但得分不如茶高)。
  • Lean protein such as chicken or turkey, or vegetarian alternatives such as tofu.
    瘦肉蛋白,如鸡肉或火鸡,或素食替代品,如豆腐。
  • Dark chocolate (look for 70 per cent cocoa and above and stick to a few squares).
    黑巧克力(寻找70%及以上的可可,几块即可)。
  • Herbs and spices such as garlic, ginger and turmeric are anti-inflammatory agents. Use to flavour food instead of salt.
    大蒜、生姜和姜黄等草药和香料是抗炎剂。用来调味食物而不是盐。
  • Red wine: although it is anti-inflammatory due to its high content of resveratrol, experts don’t advocate drinking too much alcohol. Whole grapes and berries are better sources of resveratrol.
    红酒:虽然由于白藜芦醇含量高,它具有抗炎作用,但专家不主张饮酒过量。整颗葡萄和浆果是白藜芦醇的更好来源。

Foods to avoid or limit
应避免或限制的食物

As a general rule avoid or cut down on foods high in saturated fat and sugar.
一般来说,避免或减少饱和脂肪和糖含量高的食物。

  • Red meats such as burgers and steaks and processed ready meals containing red meat have high levels of saturated fat, which is pro-inflammatory, so eat only small amounts.
    汉堡和牛排等红肉以及含有红肉的加工即食食品含有高水平的饱和脂肪,这是促炎的,所以只吃少量。
  • Processed meats such as salami, ham, sausages, bacon and chorizo.
    加工肉类,如意大利腊肠、火腿、香肠、培根和红肠。
  • Deep-fried foods such as chips and takeaways.
    薯条和外卖等油炸食品。
  • Sweets and milk chocolate.
    糖果和牛奶巧克力。
  • Baked goods including shop-bought cakes and biscuits.
    烘焙食品,包括商店购买的蛋糕和饼干。
  • Sugary drinks. 含糖饮料。
  • Foods containing trans fats such as processed ready meals and some margarines.
    含有反式脂肪的食物,如加工过的即食食品和一些人造黄油。
  • Crisps. 薯 片。
  • Alcohol. 酒精。
  • Takeaway and processed pizzas.
    外卖和加工比萨饼。
  • Coconut oil and butter. 椰子油和黄油。
  • Full-fat milk and hard cheese.
    全脂牛奶和硬奶酪。
You may also need to make lifestyle changes such as managing stress, reducing alcohol intake, and getting better sleep. Photo / 123rf
You may also need to make lifestyle changes such as managing stress, reducing alcohol intake, and getting better sleep. Photo / 123rf
您可能还需要改变生活方式,例如管理压力、减少酒精摄入量和改善睡眠。照片 / 1

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Health benefits 健康益处

Following an anti-inflammatory diet can help with several conditions where inflammation is the main driver, although you may also need medication and have to make lifestyle changes such as being more active, giving up smoking, managing stress, cutting down on alcohol, and getting better sleep.
遵循抗炎饮食可以帮助治疗炎症是主要驱动因素的几种疾病,尽管您可能还需要药物治疗并且必须改变生活方式,例如更加活跃、戒烟、管理压力、减少饮酒和获得更好的睡眠。

Heart health 心脏健康

Most evidence for the health benefits of the anti-inflammatory diet lies in the heart health field. Going back to the 1950s, the Seven Countries Study by the American physiologist Ancel Keys found dietary patterns in the Mediterranean were associated with lower rates of heart disease and death.
抗炎饮食对健康有益的大多数证据都在心脏健康领域。早在1950年代,美国生理学家安塞尔·凯斯(Ancel Keys)的七国研究发现,地中海的饮食模式与较低的心脏病和死亡率有关。

The Lyon Diet Heart Study, built on these findings, showed the Mediterranean anti-inflammatory diet had a striking protective effect on heart attack recurrence. “Since then, large-scale epidemiological and intervention trials have consistently shown compelling evidence on cardiovascular health including lowering hypertension (high blood pressure) and blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides),” says Gill.
基于这些发现的里昂饮食心脏研究表明,地中海抗炎饮食对心脏病发作复发具有显着的保护作用。“从那时起,大规模的流行病学和干预试验一直显示出令人信服的心血管健康证据,包括降低高血压和血脂(胆固醇和甘油三酯),”吉尔说。

Type 2 diabetes and weight management
2型糖尿病和体重管理

The anti-inflammatory diet has shown promise in metabolic health with previous studies showing improvements in glycaemic (blood sugar) control.
抗炎饮食在代谢健康方面显示出希望,以前的研究表明血糖(血糖)控制有所改善。

A study published last year found the Mediterranean diet was effective in helping to control blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. An anti-inflammatory diet is also linked to a lower body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as a lower risk of gaining weight over time.
去年发表的一项研究发现,地中海饮食可有效控制2型糖尿病患者的血糖。抗炎饮食还与较低的体重和体重指数 (BMI) 以及随着时间的推移体重增加的风险降低有关.

Mental health 心理健康

The Smiles trial found people with moderate-to-severe depression who followed a Med-style anti-inflammatory diet, eating 50g of fibre a day, had a 32 per cent reduction in depression symptoms compared with 8 per cent in a control group. Since then, other studies have reported similar findings.
Smiles试验发现,中度至重度抑郁症患者遵循医学式抗炎饮食,每天摄入50克纤维,抑郁症状减少了32%,而对照组为8%。从那时起,其他研究也报告了类似的发现。

Make your meals from scratch. Photo / 123rf
Make your meals from scratch. Photo / 123rf
从头开始做饭。照片 / 123rf

 

Tips for starting an anti-inflammatory diet
开始抗炎饮食的提示

  • Start gradually: “Some people like to change everything overnight in an all-or-nothing sort of way,” says Fiuza. “But I generally find people stick to it more if they make small changes gradually — adding lentils to a bolognese sauce for instance to replace half the meat, using olive oil for cooking or cutting out white bread for wholemeal or white rice or pasta for brown.”
    循序渐进:“有些人喜欢在一夜之间以一种全有或全无的方式改变一切,”Fiuza说。但我通常发现,如果人们逐渐做出一些小的改变,他们就会更加坚持——例如,在肉酱中加入扁豆以代替一半的肉,使用橄榄油烹饪或用全麦面包代替白面包或用糙米代替白米饭或意大利面。
  • Cook meals from scratch: “That way you will avoid trans fats and a lot of the saturated fats and sugars that are added to goods to improve taste and extend shelf life,” Fiuza explains. “It gives you much more control over the ingredients.”
    从原材料开始做饭:“这样你就可以避免反式脂肪和大量饱和脂肪和糖,这些脂肪和糖被添加到商品中,以改善味道并延长保质期,”Fiuza解释说。它让你对成分有更多的控制权。
  • Go for variety: “Instead of buying a tin of red kidney beans or a packet of frozen peas, choose a tin of mixed beans or mixed vegetables instead to benefit your gut microbes,” says Dr Gill. “Same with nuts and dried fruit, opt for a mixed bag of different varieties.”
    选择多样性:“与其购买一罐红芸豆或一包冷冻豌豆,不如选择一罐混合豆类或混合蔬菜,以有益于您的肠道微生物,”吉尔博士说。坚果和干果也一样,选择不同品种的混合袋。
  • Batch cook: “Not everyone has the time and energy to cook a meal every night after work, so try batch cooking and freezing meals which you can defrost when convenient.”
    批量烹饪:“不是每个人都有时间和精力每天晚上下班后做饭,所以尝试批量烹饪和冷冻饭菜,方便时可以解冻。
  • Think apples, onions, and tea: “One study found that apples, tea, and onions were the foods with the most anti-inflammatory effects, so that might be a good place to start,” says Arens.
    想想苹果、洋葱和茶:“一项研究发现,苹果、茶和洋葱是抗炎作用最强的食物,所以这可能是一个不错的起点,”阿伦斯说。

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Seven-day meal plan 七天膳食计划

Weekly menu 一周菜单

Monday 星期一

Breakfast: Smashed avocado on wholegrain bread with a poached egg
早餐: 鳄梨碎配荷包蛋全麦面包

Lunch: Wholegrain bagel with light cream cheese, smoked salmon and spinach
午餐: 全麦百吉饼配淡奶油芝士、烟熏鲑鱼和菠菜

Dinner: Lentil-based spaghetti bolognese made from 50 per cent lentils and 50 per cent turkey mince)
晚餐:由50%的扁豆和50%的火鸡肉末制成的扁豆肉酱意大利面)

Snack: Carrots and pepper with hummus dip
小吃:胡萝卜和胡椒配鹰嘴豆泥蘸酱

Tuesday 星期二

Breakfast: Overnight oats with bananas and nut butter
早餐:隔夜燕麦配香蕉和坚果酱

Lunch: Baked beans or sardines on wholegrain toast
午餐: 全麦吐司烤豆或沙丁鱼

Dinner: Grilled chicken and vegetable (eg peppers, mangetout, carrots, cashew nuts) stir-fry
晚餐:烤鸡肉和蔬菜(如辣椒、荷兰豆、胡萝卜、腰果)炒菜

Snack: Wholegrain crackers with cottage cheese and a handful of dried fruit and nuts
小吃:全麦饼干配奶酪和少量干果和坚果

Wednesday 星期三

Breakfast: Low-fat plain yoghurt with berries, a sprinkling of nuts and a drizzle of honey
早餐:低脂原味酸奶配浆果、少许坚果和少许蜂蜜

Lunch: Home-made chunky vegetable soup
午餐: 自制大块蔬菜汤

Dinner: Bean-based (kidney beans, butter beans, chickpeas, pinto beans) chilli con carne with brown rice
晚餐:豆类(芸豆、黄油豆、鹰嘴豆、斑豆)辣椒肉酱配糙米

Snack: Greek yoghurt with nuts and seeds
小吃:希腊酸奶配坚果和种子

Thursday 星期四

Breakfast: Mixed fruit smoothie made with semi-skimmed/skimmed or plant-based milk alternative, nut butter and a handful of oats
早餐:混合水果冰沙,由半脱脂/脱脂或植物性牛奶替代品、坚果酱和少量燕麦制成

Lunch: Grilled chicken or salmon rainbow salad
午餐: 烤鸡肉或鲑鱼彩虹沙拉

Dinner: Fish stew 晚餐:炖鱼

Snack: Home-made unsweetened popcorn with frozen berries and dark chocolate topping
小吃:自制不加糖爆米花配冷冻浆果和黑巧克力配料

Friday 星期五

Breakfast: Vege breakfast with tomatoes, mushrooms, spinach, beans and eggs
早餐:蔬菜早餐,包括西红柿、蘑菇、菠菜、豆类和鸡蛋

Lunch: Stuffed peppers (couscous, pine nuts, olives, sundried tomatoes, feta)
午餐: 酿辣椒(蒸粗麦粉、松子、橄榄、晒干的西红柿、羊乳酪)

Dinner: Aubergine parmigiana
晚餐: 茄子帕尔马干酪

Snack: Sliced apple with nut butter
小吃:苹果片配坚果酱

Saturday 星期六

Breakfast: Cereal (eg fruit and fibre, wheat biscuits, shredded wheat)
早餐:谷物(如水果和纤维、小麦饼干、小麦丝)

Lunch: Jacket potato with home-made baked beans
午餐: 夹克土豆配自制烤豆

Dinner: Mediterranean vegetable omelette
晚餐:地中海蔬菜煎蛋

Snack: Raspberries dipped in dark chocolate (70 per cent)
零食:覆盆子蘸黑巧克力(70%)

Sunday 星期日

Breakfast: Home-made granola (oats, flaked almonds, pecans, pumpkin seeds, dried fruit)
早餐:自制格兰诺拉麦片(燕麦,杏仁片,山核桃,南瓜子,干果)

Lunch: Pesto spinach pasta
午餐: 香蒜酱菠菜意大利面

Dinner: Vegetable casserole
晚餐:蔬菜砂锅

Snack: Cucumber sticks with low-fat hummus
小吃:黄瓜棒配低脂鹰嘴豆泥

来源:Daily Telegraph UK 英国《每日电讯报》

分类:健康人生

(即时多来源) 英语健康要闻 English Health News

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